10 Fastest Growing Biking Cities in America (You'll Be Surprised Who Made the List)
The League of American Bicyclists recently published its third edition of Where We Ride: An Analysis of Bicycling in American Cities, which is based on new data from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey and looks at the growth of bicycle commuting around the country.
In the report, the league looks at:
- how all 50 states rank according to bicycle commuters as a share of all commuters
- how cities with a high percentage of bicycle commuters compare to other cities in their regions
- how cities compare based upon multimodal commuters, looking beyond just bikes to other forms of transportation that involve more physical activity, including walking and transit
Unsurprisingly, for bike enthusiasts at least, Davis and Berkeley, California, along with Boulder, Colorado and Portland, Oregon all have high levels of ridership. But one really interesting ranking is the top 50 large cities where bike commuting is growing the fastest. Several cities on the list are probably not what most people would expect.
Here's the top 10 (go here for the full ranking):
- Detroit, MI
- Pittsburgh, PA
- Cincinnati, OH
- Portland, OR
- St. Louis, MO
- Chicago, IL
- Cleveland, OH
- Washington, DC
- Milwaukee, WI
- Oakland, CA
At least half of the top 10 cities are Rust Belt cities with harsh winters like Detroit. And yet Detroit saw a 400 percent increase in the number of bike commuters from 2000 to 2014. Now, bikers still only make up 0.8 percent of total commuters there (It's no Copenhagen, at least for now). Still, more bike lanes, especially more protected bike lanes, and programs like Slow Roll Detroit help to explain why biking is taking off in the nation's car capital.
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When Looking Through a Microscope Isn’t Close Enough.<p>For the last few years, <a href="http://www.rokaslab.org/" target="_blank">our team at Vanderbilt University</a>, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/lab/Gustavo-Goldman-Lab" target="_blank">Gustavo Goldman's team at São Paulo University in Brazil</a> and many other collaborators around the world have been collecting samples of fungi from patients infected with different species of <em>Aspergillus</em> molds. One of the species we are particularly interested in is <a href="https://doi.org/10.1006/rwgn.2001.0082" target="_blank"><em>Aspergillus nidulans</em>, a relatively common and generally harmless fungus</a>. Clinical laboratories typically identify the species of <em>Aspergillus</em> causing the infection by examining cultures of the fungi under the microscope. The problem with this approach is that very closely related species of <em>Aspergillus</em> tend to look very similar in their broad morphology or physical appearance when viewing them through a microscope.</p><p>Interested in examining the varying abilities of different <em>A. nidulans</em> strains to cause disease, we decided to analyze their total genetic content, or genomes. What we saw came as a total surprise. We had not collected <em>A. nidulans</em> but <em>Aspergillus latus</em>, a close relative of <em>A. nidulans</em> and, as we were to soon find out, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.071" target="_blank">a hybrid species that evolved through the fusion of the genomes</a> of two other <em>Aspergillus</em> species: <em>Aspergillus spinulosporus</em> and an unknown close relative of <em>Aspergillus quadrilineatus</em>. Thus, we realized not only that these patients harbored infections from an entirely different species than we thought they were, but also that this species was the first ever <em>Aspergillus</em> hybrid known to cause human infections.</p>
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(Left) Candida yeasts live on parts of the human body. Imbalance of microbes on the body can allow these yeasts, some of which are hybrids, to grow and cause infection. (Right) Cryptococcus yeasts, including ones that are hybrids, can cause life-threatening infections in primarily immunocompromised people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008315" target="_blank">Why certain <em>Aspergillus</em> species are so deadly</a> while others are harmless remains unknown. This may in part be because <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2007.02.007" target="_blank">combinations of traits, rather than individual traits</a>, underlie organisms' ability to cause disease. So why then are hybrids frequently associated with human disease? Hybrids inherit genetic material from both parents, which may result in new combinations of traits. This may make them more similar to one parent in some of their characteristics, reflect both parents in others or may differ from both in the rest. It is precisely this mix and match of traits that hybrids have inherited from their parental species that <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/14/science/14creatures.html" target="_blank">facilitates their evolutionary success</a>, including their ability to cause disease.</p>
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